Fungus Beetles / Plaster Beetles
真菌甲蟲 / 灰泥甲蟲
Family — Cryptophagidae(朽木蟲) / Family — Lathridiidae(姬薪蟲科)
l About 1.5mm (Plaster beetle) and 3.5mm (Fungus beetle).
◎Plaster beetles do not damage since they feed exclusively on moulds and exist only under damp conditions conducive to moulds growth.
◎Fungus beetles may carry moulds from one commodity to another in damp warehouses.
◎Both species may contaminate food.
◎Minor pests on damp plaster, particularly in newly–built houses. Also in mills and warehouses where they may infest damp foodstuffs.
Size: 1/16-inch long 大小: 1/16 英寸長
Color: Varies depending on species: brown, reddish-brown, black
顏色: 變化根據其種類: 棕色, 紅棕色, 黑色
Plaster beetles belong to the family Lathridiidae, which contains many different genera and species. 灰泥甲蟲屬於(姬薪蟲科), 包含許多不同的<屬>和<種>。
These are tiny beetles for the most part and different types are shaped and colored a bit differently thus making identification by an uneducated eye more difficult.由於他們微小差異不大又色彩多變，因此未受過辨別訓練的人相當難辨認出他們的種類.
Plaster beetles may also be known as minute brown scavenger beetles or lathridiid beetles. 灰泥甲蟲也許被認為是棕色食腐甲蟲或lathridiid 甲蟲。
Most plaster beetles are good fliers and may be found attracted to window sills, sinks and light fixtures. 多數灰泥甲蟲是擅於飛行, 而且常被吸引至窗邊、水槽、燈具並發現其蹤跡。
These beetles obtained their name from the time when walls in homes were constructed of wire mesh and wet plaster. 這些甲蟲的命名,是始於室內的牆壁在建造時的潮濕灰泥牆而來。
Invariably, excess moisture behind wallpaper installed before walls had dried promoted mold growth, which served as food for these beetles. 通常, 新貼上的壁紙在牆壁未乾燥前，使得黴菌得以孳生,提供這些甲蟲生長空間與食物來源。
As populations of the beetles grew large, beetles would begin to exit from their breeding sites, often appearing by the hundreds or thousands. The life cycle of plaster beetles can be completed quickly, occurring in as few as 13 to 28 days, which results in a large numbers of beetles. 當甲蟲族群數量大增時, 甲蟲會開始離開他們繁殖的地點,通常會出現成百或數以千計的甲蟲。灰泥甲蟲它們的生命週期可以很快完成,生命的週期可以短至13~28天，結果導致大量的甲蟲在短期間內產生。
Newly constructed homes and buildings use prefabricated drywall boards, therefore problems with plaster beetles are less often encountered. 建造房子和大廈因使用新的預鑄的乾燥板工法, 因此灰泥甲蟲的問題較少遇到。
Because plaster beetles are fungus feeders, however, they can thrive in any building where there is a water leak, poor ventilation or other sources of moisture that permit the development of molds inside walls or other voids.因為灰泥甲蟲靠真菌維生, 所以, 他們能在建物內任何潮濕漏水不通風等易發霉的地方生長繁殖,譬如內牆或一些死角。
Related beetles, such as the foreign grain beetle (Ahasverus advena), the silky fungus beetle (Cryptophagus laticollis), and the cellar fungus beetle (Cryptophagus cellaris) are all fungus feeders that may be found living with plaster beetles or in conditions preferred by them. 相近親的甲蟲, 譬如外來穀物甲蟲(Ahasverus advena), 毛絨的真菌甲蟲(Cryptophagus laticollis), 和地窖真菌甲蟲(Cryptophagus cellaris) 全部生活在與灰泥甲蟲相似的環境情況下。
These beetles develop wherever suitable molds might grow on which the beetle larvae can feed. 這些甲蟲常繁殖在一些適合霉菌生長而能讓幼蟲有充足食物的地方。
Plaster beetles occur naturally outside buildings and may be attracted to homes and buildings by exterior lights. 這些甲蟲通常在建物外的環境繁殖,且會因為光源而吸引至住所或建築中。
Any location within a structure where moisture may persist due to a water leak, condensation or inadequate ventilation can be the source for a plaster beetle infestation. 在一些潮濕滲水水氣凝結及通風不良處,都將成為灰泥甲蟲出沒的地方。 Additionally, some species of plaster and fungus beetles may also infest moldy grain or other food products, thus may be found where grains and grain-based products are stored or processed.。此外, 有些灰泥甲蟲和真菌甲蟲的品種,也會出現在發霉的五穀或其它食用食品處,因此便可以常在真菌和黴菌孳生的食品 食品倉庫 食品工廠發現它們。
Tips for Control防治的訣竅
The key to controlling plaster beetles is locating and correcting the excess moisture that is serving as the breeding source. 控制灰泥甲蟲的重點是找出正確的潮濕地點,除去繁殖的因素。
Sometimes when a leak is fixed or ventilation is improved, steps are not taken to dry out the area that has become wet. 有時當漏水修復或通風改善後,則不須在進行乾燥程序。
The area then continues to support molds, allowing plaster beetles and other fungus feeding beetles to thrive. 若這區域繼續提供霉菌孳生，灰泥甲蟲和其他真菌甲蟲將繼續大量繁殖 。
Once the moisture issues are corrected, treatment by a pest management professional may be beneficial in reducing the numbers of beetles seen.一旦濕氣被
Mold or Plaster Beetles
COMMON NAME: Mold or Plaster Beetles
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Various
The common name of mold refers to the fact that these beetles feed on mold and that of plaster because new plaster which remains damp too long will often support a growth of mold which attracts these beetles. Mold beetles are primarily a nuisance pest but can be of considerable importance in food-processing, canning, glass, pharmaceutical, and bottling plants. They are worldwide in distribution with about 120 species occurring in the United States and Canada.
Adults about 1/32-1/8" (1-3 mm) long; body form distinctive with elytra (wing covers) elongate-oval, widest at middle, usually rounded at humeri (front corners/shoulders), pronotum narrower than elytra, often nearly round in dorsal view but in some species sides nearly parallel or widest at front, head prominent, often nearly as wide as pronotum. Color reddish brown to brown, rarely black. Antenna 8-11-segmented with a 1- to 3-segmented, elongate club. Elytra usually striate (with punctures/pits in longitudinal rows). Dorsal surface sometimes hairy. Legs with tarsi 2-segmented (2-3-3 or 2-2-3 respectively).
(1) Silken fungus beetles (Cryptophagidae) with elytra (wing covers) lacking striae (grooves/lines of punctures/pits), pronotum often with depressions at its base and as wide as base of elytra, and tarsi 5-5-5 or 5-5-4 (some males). (2) Hairy fungus beetles, including Typhaea stercorea, (Mycetophagidae) have pronotum often with 2 basal depressions (absent in T. stercorea) and pronotum wide as base of elytra, and often larger (1/32-1/4" or 1-6.3 mm) long but T. stercorea 1/16=1/8 (2.2-3 mm) long. (3) Toothnecked fungus beetles (Derodontidae) with antennal club weak, not pronounced, elytra with large punctures, some species with prominent "teeth" along pronotal margins, and often larger 1/16-1/4" (1.8-6 mm). (4) Black (alphitobius laevigatus) and twobanded (Alphitophagus bifasciatus) fungus beetles (Tenebrionidae) with tarsi 5-5-4 and compound eyes notched; in addition, black fungus beetle is black above and brown or rust red underneath, and twobanded fungus beetle is reddish brown with 2 black bands across elytra.
1. Plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta Gyllenhal. Adults pale brown to dark reddish brown with antennae and legs paler; antennal club 2-segmented; pronotum distinctly constricted; elytra near base with a prominent ridge (carina) between 7th and 8th row of punctures/pits (counting from midline); length about 1/32-1/16" (1.2-1.7 mm) long; found worldwide. 2. Dienerella arga (Reiter). Adults similar to D. filum below but antennal club 3-segmented and pronotum with median depression in basal (posterior) half, not anterior half; occurs in Europe, North Africa, and in Oregon, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. 3. Dienerella filum (Aube). Adults brownish; head with median depression widened towards rear; antenna with 2-segmented club; pronotum with a broad, moderately deep depression along midline in anterior/front half; hind wings absent; length about 1/16: (1.7-2 mm) long: found in Europe, and widespread in North Africa and North and South America.
The information summarized here is for the plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta. Eggs are laid singly among the fungi, for a total of about 10 eggs over 2 months. In cultures kept at 75F (24C), the eggs hatched in 6-7 days. The 3 larval instars required 5 days for the 1st, 7 days for the 2nd, and 12 days for the 3rd. The 3rd instar fed for 9 days. It then stopped feeding and attached itself to a surface by means of an anal secretion. After 3 days it pupated. The pupal stage lasted 7-8 days. Developmental time (egg to adult) required at least 36 days at 75F (24C), 54 days at 65F (18C), and as long as 5 months at lower temperatures.
Both larvae and adults apparently feed only on mold spores. They are commonly found in moldy plant and animal substances, in fungi, in vegetable debris, under bark and stones, and sometimes in ant and termite nests. They are commonly found in moldy stored food products but cause no direct damage to the food material. With large infestation, deposition of their fecal material may further reduce the product's valve. Mold beetles can be a problem within the first year of a newly built home. This can occur when the plaster or sheetrock walls are slow in drying. The dampness associated with the plastering temporarily supported mold growth, especially in wall voids. They can also infest mounted plant specimens in herbaria. Often newly collected plant specimens are not properly dried or kept dry before mounting and, therefore, get mold growth on them. This can also occur with other museum specimens. Some other situations where they have been found include damp basements on various articles such as old boots, hats, etc., or moldy wallpaper, under linoleum in kitchens and bathroom, on moldy paper and newsprint, in old bird nests, etc. Some species can fly.
The key to control is drying out the problem area enough to stop mold growth; in general, reduce RH below 20%. Heat and/or ventilation can be used to lower the humidity. Temperatures above 110F/43C kill adult beetles in about 24 hours or less. Wall void injection may be desirable for quicker results or in areas of continual high moisture which cannot be satisfactorily reduced. A non-residual aerosol with 4-way tip should be applied first for a quick contact kill. This is followed by application via a 4-way tip of a positively-charged boron-based duct, which acts both as an insecticide and fungicide for long-term control. Adults in the living space can be removed with a vacuum. Rarely is an ULV application of a non-residual pesticide required.
Feed on mould and fungi. Can be found inside where damp and slightly mouldy conditions occur i.e. damp plaster, bathrooms, under carpets.
Can also be found in lofts associated with bird nests.