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Fungus Beetles / Plaster Beetles 真菌甲蟲 / 灰泥甲蟲
Family — Cryptophagidae(朽木蟲) / Family — Lathridiidae(姬薪蟲科)Appearance (外觀)
l About 1.5mm (Plaster beetle) and 3.5mm (Fungus beetle).
•Plaster beetles do not damage since they feed exclusively on moulds and exist only under damp conditions conducive to moulds growth.
•Fungus beetles may carry moulds from one commodity to another in damp warehouses.
•Both species may contaminate food.
•Minor pests on damp plaster, particularly in newly–built houses. Also in mills and warehouses where they may infest damp foodstuffs.
•Size： 1/16-inch long 大小: 1/16 英寸長
•Color: Varies depending on species: brown, reddish-brown, black
•顏色: 變化根據其種類: 棕色, 紅棕色, 黑色
•Plaster beetles belong to the family Lathridiidae, which contains many different genera and species.
•These are tiny beetles for the most part and different types are shaped and colored a bit differently thus making identification by an uneducated eye more difficult.
•Plaster beetles may also be known as minute brown scavenger beetles or lathridiid beetles.
•Most plaster beetles are good fliers and may be found attracted to window sills, sinks and light fixtures.
•These beetles obtained theiame from the time when walls in homes were constructed of wire mesh and wet plaster.
•Invariably, excess moisture behind wallpaper installed before walls had dried promoted mold growth, which served as food for these beetles.
•As populations of the beetles grew large, beetles would begin to exit from their breeding sites, often appearing by the hundreds or thousands. The life cycle of plaster beetles can be completed quickly, occurring in as few as 13 to 28 days, which results in a large numbers of beetles.
•Newly constructed homes and buildings use prefabricated drywall boards, therefore problems with plaster beetles are less often encountered.
•Because plaster beetles are fungus feeders, however, they can thrive in any building where there is a water leak, poor ventilation or other sources of moisture that permit the development of molds inside walls or other voids.
•Related beetles, such as the foreign grain beetle (Ahasverus advena), the silky fungus beetle (Cryptophagus laticollis), and the cellar fungus beetle (Cryptophagus cellaris) are all fungus feeders that may be found living with plaster beetles or in conditions preferred by them.
(10)相近親的甲蟲, 譬如外來穀物甲蟲(Ahasverus advena), 毛絨的真菌甲蟲(Cryptophagus laticollis), 和地窖真菌甲蟲(Cryptophagus cellaris) 全部生活在與灰泥甲蟲相似的環境情況下。
•These beetles develop wherever suitable molds might grow on which the beetle larvae can feed.
•Plaster beetles occuaturally outside buildings and may be attracted to homes and buildings by exterior lights.
•Any location within a structure where moisture may persist due to a water leak, condensation or inadequate ventilation can be the source for a plaster beetle infestation.
•Additionally, some species of plaster and fungus beetles may also infest moldy grain or other food products, thus may be found where grains and grain-based products are stored or processed.。
(4)此外, 有些灰泥甲蟲和真菌甲蟲的品種,也會出現在發霉的五穀或其它食用食品處,因此便可以常在真菌和黴菌孳生的食品 食品倉庫 食品工廠發現它們。
Tips for Control防治的訣竅
•The key to controlling plaster beetles is locating and correcting the excess moisture that is serving as the breeding source.
•Sometimes when a leak is fixed or ventilation is improved, steps are not taken to dry out the area that has become wet.
•The area then continues to support molds, allowing plaster beetles and other fungus feeding beetles to thrive.
•Once the moisture issues are corrected, treatment by a pest management professional may be beneficial in reducing the numbers of beetles seen.
Mold or Plaster Beetles
COMMON NAME: Mold or Plaster Beetles
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Various
The common name of mold refers to the fact that these beetles feed on mold and that of plaster because new plaster which remains damp too long will often support a growth of mold which attracts these beetles. Mold beetles are primarily a nuisance pest but can be of considerable importance in food-processing, canning, glass, pharmaceutical, and bottling plants. They are worldwide in distribution with about 120 species occurring in the United States and Canada.
Adults about 1/32-1/8" (1-3 mm) long; body form distinctive with elytra (wing covers) elongate-oval, widest at middle, usually rounded at humeri (front corners/shoulders), pronotum narrower than elytra, often nearly round in dorsal view but in some species sides nearly parallel or widest at front, head prominent, often nearly as wide as pronotum. Color reddish brown to brown, rarely black. Antenna 8-11-segmented with a 1- to 3-segmented, elongate club. Elytra usually striate (with punctures/pits in longitudinal rows). Dorsal surface sometimes hairy. Legs with tarsi 2-segmented (2-3-3 or 2-2-3 respectively).
(1) Silken fungus beetles (Cryptophagidae) with elytra (wing covers) lacking striae (grooves/lines of punctures/pits), pronotum often with depressions at its base and as wide as base of elytra, and tarsi 5-5-5 or 5-5-4 (some males). (2) Hairy fungus beetles, including Typhaea stercorea, (Mycetophagidae) have pronotum often with 2 basal depressions (absent in T. stercorea) and pronotum wide as base of elytra, and often larger (1/32-1/4" or 1-6.3 mm) long but T. stercorea 1/16=1/8 (2.2-3 mm) long. (3) Toothnecked fungus beetles (Derodontidae) with antennal club weak, not pronounced, elytra with large punctures, some species with prominent "teeth" along pronotal margins, and often larger 1/16-1/4" (1.8-6 mm). (4) Black (alphitobius laevigatus) and twobanded (Alphitophagus bifasciatus) fungus beetles (Tenebrionidae) with tarsi 5-5-4 and compound eyes notched; in addition, black fungus beetle is black above and brown or rust red underneath, and twobanded fungus beetle is reddish brown with 2 black bands across elytra.
1. Plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta Gyllenhal. Adults pale brown to dark reddish brown with antennae and legs paler; antennal club 2-segmented; pronotum distinctly constricted; elytra near base with a prominent ridge (carina) between 7th and 8th row of punctures/pits (counting from midline); length about 1/32-1/16" (1.2-1.7 mm) long; found worldwide. 2. Dienerella arga (Reiter). Adults similar to D. filum below but antennal club 3-segmented and pronotum with median depression in basal (posterior) half, not anterior half; occurs in Europe, North Africa, and in Oregon, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. 3. Dienerella filum (Aube). Adults brownish; head with median depression widened towards rear; antenna with 2-segmented club; pronotum with a broad, moderately deep depression along midline in anterior/front half; hind wings absent; length about 1/16: (1.7-2 mm) long: found in Europe, and widespread in North Africa and North and South America.
The information summarized here is for the plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta. Eggs are laid singly among the fungi, for a total of about 10 eggs over 2 months. In cultures kept at 75F (24C), the eggs hatched in 6-7 days. The 3 larval instars required 5 days for the 1st, 7 days for the 2nd, and 12 days for the 3rd. The 3rd instar fed for 9 days. It then stopped feeding and attached itself to a surface by means of an anal secretion. After 3 days it pupated. The pupal stage lasted 7-8 days. Developmental time (egg to adult) required at least 36 days at 75F (24C), 54 days at 65F (18C), and as long as 5 months at lower temperatures.
Both larvae and adults apparently feed only on mold spores. They are commonly found in moldy plant and animal substances, in fungi, in vegetable debris, under bark and stones, and sometimes in ant and termite nests. They are commonly found in moldy stored food products but cause no direct damage to the food material. With large infestation, deposition of their fecal material may further reduce the product's valve. Mold beetles can be a problem within the first year of a newly built home. This can occur when the plaster or sheetrock walls are slow in drying. The dampness associated with the plastering temporarily supported mold growth, especially in wall voids. They can also infest mounted plant specimens in herbaria. Often newly collected plant specimens are not properly dried or kept dry before mounting and, therefore, get mold growth on them. This can also occur with other museum specimens. Some other situations where they have been found include damp basements on various articles such as old boots, hats, etc., or moldy wallpaper, under linoleum in kitchens and bathroom, on moldy paper and newsprint, in old bird nests, etc. Some species can fly.
The key to control is drying out the problem area enough to stop mold growth; in general, reduce RH below 20%. Heat and/or ventilation can be used to lower the humidity. Temperatures above 110F/43C kill adult beetles in about 24 hours or less. Wall void injection may be desirable for quicker results or in areas of continual high moisture which cannot be satisfactorily reduced. A non-residual aerosol with 4-way tip should be applied first for a quick contact kill. This is followed by application via a 4-way tip of a positively-charged boron-based duct, which acts both as an insecticide and fungicide for long-term control. Adults in the living space can be removed with a vacuum. Rarely is an ULV application of a non-residual pesticide required.
Feed on mould and fungi. Can be found inside where damp and slightly mouldy conditions occur i.e. damp plaster, bathrooms, under carpets.
Can also be found in lofts associated with bird nests.
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Page last updated 03/28/05 by the UW-Madison Department of Entomolog